Onderzoek

Games volgens docenten

Tekst Jantina Huizenga
Gepubliceerd op 30-11-2015 Gewijzigd op 29-08-2017
Beeld Human Touch Photography
Educatieve games zijn een verrijking van de les, zeggen docenten die op eigen initiatief met online spellen werken. Nu alleen nog tijdig het lesdoel formuleren.

Er is veel wensdenken over educatieve games: onderwijskenners, politici en wetenschappers vertellen geregeld hoe waardevol het zou zijn als digitale leermiddelen een onlosmakelijk onderdeel vormden van de lespraktijk. Maar hoe kijken docenten die met educatieve games werken, eigenlijk tegen ‘game-based- learning’ aan? Om die vraag te beantwoorden interviewden onderzoekers van de Universiteit van Amsterdam ruim veertig docenten (met een gemiddelde van vijftien jaar leservaring).

Variatie

Op één docent na werken alle geïnterviewden op eigen initiatief met games. Er is dus geen verplichting vanuit de school. De meesten benadrukken dat educatieve games niet alleen variatie bieden (want niet wéér een klassikale les), maar ook de lesstof verdiepen en meer mogelijkheden hebben voor ‘leren op niveau’ of ‘leren door te doen’.

Een educatieve game kan je helpen om leerlingen bij de les te houden en ze te enthousiasmeren, zeggen de geïnterviewde docenten die een game doorgaans
gedurende drie tot twaalf weken gebruiken. Vooral een competitieelement blijkt
goed te werken: leerlingen blijven scherp door hun wens om te winnen. Bovendien
kan competitie aanzetten tot reflectie: wanneer leerlingen verliezen, willen ze weten wat ze de volgende keer anders moeten doen.

Games helpen bij verdieping en vergroten motivatie

Maar docenten zien ook dat het enthousiasme van leerlingen na de eerste lessen kan wegebben. Technische haperingen of het lezen van instructies werken negatief, vooral als leerlingen thuis gewend zijn om snellere games te spelen op hun Xboxes en PlayStations.

Lesdoelen

Opvallend is dat docenten vaak het lesdoel niet zo precies of pas ná het gebruik
van een game formuleren. Toch staat voor velen de inhoud van de game voorop, zoals celdeling (biologie) of de marketingmix (economie). Leerlingen moeten
vooral meer inzicht krijgen in een proces of systeem dan dat ze feitenkennis verwerven, zeggen de geïnterviewden. Educatieve games hebben in die zin de  functie om lesstof minder abstract te maken: ze kunnen bijvoorbeeld goed een onderwerp visualeren.

Zoals één van de docenten zegt: ‘Je kunt zeggen dat er een kleilaag is van tweehonderd meter diep, maar dan blijf je veel te abstract. Als leerlingen in een game aardlagen op elkaar moeten leggen en ze de lagen vervolgens in 3D kunnen bekijken, dan is het visuele effect groter dan als je alleen een kaart gebruikt:
leerlingen snappen makkelijker dat er een ondoordringbare aardlaag op een poreuze laag ligt.’ Naast vakinhoudelijke verdieping is het de docenten vaak ook om algemene vaardigheden te doen, zoals samenwerken, reflectie, zelfstandig leren of projectmatig werken. Het is echter niet duidelijk in hoeverre deze doelen bereikt worden. Soms lijken vooral leerlingen die al beschikken over de algemene, vakoverstijgende vaardigheden, zich door de game verder te ontwikkelen, terwijl de
zwakkere leerlingen achterblijven. 

 

Jantina Huizenga, Geert Ten Dam, Joke Voogt en Wilfried Admiraal, Teacher Perceptions of the Value of Game-Based Learning in Secondary Education (under review)Meer info: j.c.huizenga@uva.nl.

Dit artikel verscheen in Didactief, november 2015.

 

Een overzicht van de games die de docenten uit het onderzoek gebruiken: 

Naam van het spel korte beschrijving van het spel

URL van het spel 

3D game studio

An authoring system for interactive 2D and 3D applications

http://www.3dgamestudio.com

7scenes

An online platform to create location-based games and tours

http://scenes.com/

 

Aandelenmarktspel [stock market game]

A stock market game; a flow of news updates influences the prices

http://www.aandelenmarktspel.nl

Alice

A 3D programming environment that makes it easy to create an animation

http://www.alice.org

Bizzgames Production Company

A computer simulation game in which you own and operate a production company

http://www.bizzgames.com

Bizzgames Handel & Wandel [Bizzgames Trade & Walk]

A game in which you own a hot dog car in a Saturday market

http://bizzgames.nl/clients-view/client-1/

Bollen schieten [shooting spheres]

An online game in which the player shoots an arrow (with the right slope) through the spheres in a grid

http://www.fisme.science.uu.nl/toepassingen/00065/

Cellcraft

An online game in which players build a cell, fight off viruses, survive harsh worlds, and ultimately save the platypus species

http://www.kongregate.com/games/cellcraft/cellcraft

Check-out

An online ESL game in which players are immersed in a native world where all written and spoken text is exclusively in English

http://www.ranj.com/content/werk/check-out#.VD1SlPlm9fw

Civ IV

A computer game in which the player constructs a civilization, with several mods available

http://www.2kgames.com/civ4/

Derivative Puzzle

An online puzzle game in which the player needs to place the graph of the corresponding derivative below each graph

http://www.univie.ac.at/moe/tests/diff1/ablerkennen.html

DNA the double helix

An online game in which the player makes exact copies of a double-stranded DNA molecule and identifies the organism to which it belongs

http://www.nobelprize.org/educational/medicine/dna_double_helix/dnahelix.html

dr O'Too

An online puzzle game in which the player must try to form the correct molecule with the given properties as fast as possible

http://www.appdata.com/apps/facebook/329958953052-dr-o-too-city-of-chemistry

Embargo

An online game in which players are reporters and practice reading comprehensively by playing

http://www.ranj.com/content/werk/embargo#.VD1SBflm9fw

Enterprise

An entrepeneurship game in which the player operates his/her own business

http://www.ranj.com/content/werk/enterprise-the-game#.VD05Cvlm9fw

Francogrid

A French free community grid, comparable to Second Life

http://francogrid.org/

Gamemaker

A program for creating games

https://www.yoyogames.com/studio

Greenfoot

Software to learn Java programming by creating simple games

http://www.greenfoot.org

Immune Attack

An online game in which the player navigates a nanobot through a 3D environment of blood vessels and connective tissue to save a patient

http://immuneattack.org/

Later is nu [Later is now]

An online game on career orientation in which the player learns more about a career by completing assignments and reflects on them

http://www.stichtingpraktijkleren.nl/actueel/item/bericht/doorlopende-leerlijnen/

Markt Voor Vrede [Market For Peace]

A fictitious online stock market matched with debate on conflict areas; this game has been replaced with the game Uexchange

http://www.marktvoorvrede.nl

Math Expert Lite

An iPad app, a calculation game with speed and concentration challenges

http://www.appster.org/app/ab-math-expert-lite-speed-and-concentration-challenge-425920600

Math Kid

An iPad app, a math game for kids

https://itunes.apple.com/nl/app/math-kid/id465213584?mt=8

Mighty mutation maker

A website that turns your name into DNA

the game website no longer exists

Minecraft

A 3D sandbox construction game in which players build creative structures, creations, and artwork by placing and breaking various types of blocks

http://minecraftedu.com/

Miniconomy

An online game in 8 languages in which players can trade with other players and make other careers

http://www.miniconomy.com

Motion Math HD

An iPad app game with a storyline about a fallen star that must return to its place; during the game, fractions appear

http://motionmathgames.com/

Mscape

A mobile media gaming platform to create location-based games (platform discontinued)

http://www.mscape.com/

Nintento Math Trainer

A Nintendo-based game with educational activities (flashcards) on addition, subtraction, multiplication and division

http://www.personaltrainermath.com/

On The Ground Reporter

An online game with interactive quests in which players are sent as reporters on a mission to countries to return with a good story

http://www.butchandsundance.nl/work

Penguin Math

An iPad app in which players lead their penguin through Antartica by answering math questions correctly

https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/penguin-mathematics/id452948750?mt=8

Plaza Challenge

A massive multiplayer online management game in which players own and run one or more stores in a mall

http://www.plazachallenge.nl

Poverty is not a game

An online game exploring poverty in which the main character becomes homeless because of certain circumstances

http://www.povertyisnotagame.com/?lang=en

Power Up

A 3D action strategy game exploring renewable energy and challenging teens to help save the planet

http://www.tryscience.com

ProSim Advanced

A modular simulation in which students act as the managers of trading companies (in English, German and Dutch)

http://www.businessgameshop.co.uk/business-games

Race the Cell

An online game exploring gene transcription, including RNA synthesis

The game website no longer exists, but a similar game is available at http://www.biomanbio.com/GamesandLabs/LifeChemgames/Protsynth.html

Railroad Tycoon

A computer simulation game in which players build and operate their own railroad company

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Railroad_Tycoon

Scholenstrijd [School battle]

A competition with a stock market game for economics, including teaching materials

http://www.scholenstrijd.nl/

Scratch

A program for creating games

http://scratch.mit.edu

Second Life

A free 3D virtual world in which users can socialize, connect and create using free voice and text chat

http://secondlife.com

SimCity

A computer simulation game in which players build and operate their own cities

http://www.simcity.com

Sims3 in de klas [Sims3 in the classroom]

A Sims 3 game adapted by Codename Future, in which the player tries to create an ideal sustainable world (only in Dutch)

http://sims.codenamefuture.nl/index.html

SplitsZ

An educational game on online citizenship (media literacy)

http://waag.org/en/project/splitsz

Stop Disasters

A disaster simulator in which players learn how to prevent disasters

http://www.stopdisastersgame.org

Terraclues

A Google Maps scavenger hunt game/puzzle game with the objective to find locations on the world map by solving a set of clues

http://www.terraclues.com

The Great Flu

An online game in which players follow the outbreak of a flu pandemic and obtain the means to control it by making decisions

http://www.thegreatflu.com/

The Planning The Game

A location-based game where the player tries to capture land by discovering hidden facts about the development of Haarlemmermeer

http://www.deplanningthegame.nl/indexEnglish.html

Third World Farmer

An online game exploring rural poverty in developing nations

http://3rdworldfarmer.com/

Villa Elektra

A computer simulation game in which a player becomes an electrician and must rebuild a villa

http://www.learninggames.nl/page/485/villa-elektra.html

Waterbusters

A home water conservation game in which players help find areas for the main character to save water, money and the environment

http://www2.seattle.gov/util/waterbusters/

Wereldhandelsspel [Global Trade Game]

An online game in which the player is a government officer and makes policy decisions regarding world trade

http://www.wereldhandelsspel.org/

Wettenstrijd [Battle of the Laws]

An online game on legislation processes in which players explore what how it feels to be a member of the European Parliament

http://www.xmediapublish.nl/wettenstrijd/?lang=en

 

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